Racial profiling is one of the most significant and complex issues facing law enforcement in Canada. Racial profiling at the border is not new, according to former border agent and immigration lawyer Guidy Mamann. Racial Profiling and the War against Terrorism Controversies over racial profiling are hardly new in Canada. The Commission selected a broad definition of racial profiling for several reasons. Practical experience and psychology both confirm that anyone can stereotype, even people who are well meaning and not overtly biased. Critics ask Is it racist, or is a necessary part of law enforcement. North Americans began to use the term in their scientific writings by the late 18th century. Although anyone can experience profiling, racialized persons are primarily affected. uncountable noun Racial profiling is government or police activity that involves using people’s racial and cultural characteristics to identify people to investigate....controversies involving racial profiling and corruption. Critics ask Is it racist, or is a necessary part of law enforcement. Racial profiling is one of the most common and harmful forms of racism faced by racialized people in their interaction with the criminal justice system. COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary. Racial profiling is based on stereotypical assumptions because of one’s race, colour, ethnicity, etc.  Criminal profiling, on the other hand, relies on actual behaviour or on information about suspected activity by someone who meets the description of a specific individual. race, ethnic origin, place of origin, religion) in acquiring, processing and recalling information about others. (26 August 2003). Therefore, saying that profiling occurs should not necessarily be interpreted as an accusation that those who engage in it are racist.[4]. J.A. The Commission mostly heard of experiences of profiling from people who identified as Aboriginal, African Canadian, Arab, Chinese and South East Asian, Latin American, South Asian and Muslim. is dispute regarding what defines racial profiling. For the purposes of its inquiry, the Commission’s definition for "racial profiling" is any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security or public protection, that relies on stereotypes about race, colour, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, or place of origin, or a combination of these, rather than on a reasonable suspicion, to single out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment. The recent report in The Toronto Star accusing the Toronto police of racial profiling has renewed the debate across Canada on whether racial minorities get the same treatment as others from police forces. ), “I do believe that this was profiling by two individuals and not the entire police force. Similarly, those in a position of power may consciously or unconsciously exercise that power differently when dealing with racialized persons. Stories about racial profiling constantly appear in the news, but that doesn’t mean the public has a good grasp on what this discriminatory practice is. 1. a form of racism consisting of the (alleged) policy of policemen who stop and search vehicles driven by persons belonging to particular racial groups "Racial Profiling" refers to the discriminatory practice by law enforcement officials of targeting individuals for suspicion of crime based on the individual's race, ethnicity, religion or national origin. And, it is a particular concern when people act on their stereotypical views in a way that affects others. racial profiling (n.). In other words, criminal profiling is not the same as racial profiling since the former is based on objective evidence of wrongful behaviour while racial profiling is based on stereotypical assumptions. law enforcement official assumes someone is more likely to have committed a crime because he is African Canadian; school personnel treat a Latino child’s behaviour as an infraction under its zero tolerance policy while the same action by another child might be seen as normal "kids’ play"; a private security guard follows a shopper because she believes the shopper is more likely to steal from the store; an employer wants a stricter security clearance for a Muslim employee after September 11. a bar refuses to serve Aboriginal patrons because of an assumption that they will get drunk and rowdy; a criminal justice system official refuses bail to a Latin American person because of a belief that people from her country are violent; and. Definition of Racial Profiling In the context of rights to life, liberty and property, a concept of Racial Profiling is provided here: Police targeting of racial minorities as potential suspects of criminal activities. Racial Profiling By 2002, the Toronto Star began publication of a series of articles on the topic of race and crime. Sharpen your thoughts on racial profiling with this definition. Persons who are in a position to engage in racial profiling need to be especially vigilant to check their assumptions and biases. Some examples of profiling presented during the inquiry include: For further information please visit our Web site at www.ohrc.on.ca or call 1-800-387-9080 (toll-free), (416) 326-9511 (in Toronto), 1-800-308-5561 (TTY toll-free), (416) 326-0603 (TTY Local).Â, Membership in vocational associations and trade unions. ), “I do not think that all the individuals that are in this organization display racial profiling characteristics or stereotypical judgments. The Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse has adopted the following definition of racial profiling1: “Racial profiling is any action taken by one or more people in authority with res-pect to a person or group of persons, for reasons of safety, security or public or- Indeed, a frank exploration of each of our own assumptions and biases would lead many of us to realize that at some point or other we have stereotyped someone. “The police have a tough job to do.... We all have built in stereotypes and instincts that sometimes we count on.” (S.P. A few of the examples of profiling we heard during the inquiry include: Although anyone can experience profiling, racialized persons are primarily affected. Prior to Harris is considered to be one of this nation's leading authorities. Learn more. Racial Profiling and Human Rights in Canada examines a combination of psychological, sociological, organizational, political, and community perspectives, resulting in a holistic, multi-faceted approach to understanding the phenomenon of racial profiling and to pre-empting or eradicating it. A. ), “I know that police are there to help and suffer a lot of abuse in the jobs they do - however they are still humans with thoughts and opinions - You cannot put them on a pedestal and expect them to always leave personal life opinions out of their duties.” (M.N. His or her conduct may be based on subconscious racial stereotyping.”[5] B. Powell, “Police Chiefs Told To Help The Helpless” The Toronto Star (26 August 2003). When you are dealing with marginalized people, you exercise power differently than you do with those who are advantaged or have status in society. In European countries, the term "ethnic profiling" is also used instead of racial profiling. [2] But, while mental categories are absolutely essential in simplifying and understanding our information-rich environment, stereotypes are not appropriate, as they do not correspond to reality[3]. This definition of racial profiling is used in context and coupled with examples to help clarify. Black Muslims, Black LGBTQ2S folks, etc. The article quotes Bill Currie, Deputy Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police as having said: Membership in vocational associations and trade unions, Paying the price: The human cost of racial profiling, The impact of racial profiling on the Aboriginal community, Appendix A: Major reports relevant to racial profiling and Aboriginal peoples, http://www.psc-cfc.gc.ca/publications/monogra/mono3_e.htm>. The African Nova Scotian community is subjected to much greater police surveillance and racial profiling compared with … Racial profiling is different from criminal profiling. Racial profiling is wrong and ineffective. "The idea that immigration officers don't racially profile is nonsense," he said. In fact, many participants in our process discussed the difficult job that those in a position of authority, especially the police, have. At the same time, the Commission has emphasized that racial profiling differs from criminal profiling which isn’t based on stereotypes but rather relies on actual behaviour or on information about suspected activity by someone who meets the description of a specific individual. Racial Profiling in Canada Essay examples 1300 Words | 6 Pages. Typically, but not always, profiling is carried out by persons in a position of authority. If indeed racial profiling exists in Canada, it would be in direct violation of at least a few sections of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Laws like SB 1070 demean us all. Racial Profiling and Human Rights in Canada examines a combination of psychological, sociological, organizational, political, and community perspectives, resulting in a holistic, multi-faceted approach to understanding the phenomenon of racial profiling and to pre-empting or eradicating it. And, because these individuals are entrusted with power over others in society, it is particularly important that they be accountable when widespread concern is being expressed about the way in which that power is exercised. ), “The cops should not judge us all the same and the public should not judge all police officers the same.” (N.W. Similarly, many acknowledged that many persons in an organization may be doing their job admirably but that others, who are stereotyping, are having a significant impact on the community and its perception of the organization as a whole. How to use profiling in a sentence. The fact that racial profiling may occur on a subconscious level has been recognized, for example by the Ontario Court of Appeal in, B. Powell, “Police Chiefs Told To Help The Helpless”. [4] The fact that racial profiling may occur on a subconscious level has been recognized, for example by the Ontario Court of Appeal in R. v. Brown (2003), 64 O.R. Because stereotyping may be subtle and unconscious, in many cases the person engaging in it may not even realize that it has occurred. In Canada, specifically, where the discourse of racial tolerance has far more currency than that of racial justice and where the preferred mode of crisis containment is the production and issuance of commissioned reports, the scope of (ostensibly) progressive … Racial Profiling in Canada 1296 Words | 6 Pages. Discussing a concern with profiling is not the same as saying that every member of an organization profiles, that profiling is an intentional policy of the organization or even that it is an intentional action of those who engage in it. His book, "Profiles in Injustice: Why Racial Profiling Cannot Work" (2003), directly challenges the assertion of law enforcement that profiling is … This designation is decided by school officials, a practice that, according to the province’s Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse (cdpdj), has been associated with racial profiling, as it gives “substantial discretionary power to school personnel in terms of deciding which students it should be applied to.” As such, its practice is not limited to any one group of people or particular institution. ), “Well, I think there are a lot of damn good men on the force, but I think there are people who are not good. A new report by three independent researchers finds there is systemic bias in street checks by Montreal police but stops short of concluding officers are guilty of racial profiling. )T Stereotyping becomes a particular concern when people act on their stereotypical views in a way that affects others. Persons in society who hold positions in which they exercise a large degree of discretion have more of an opportunity to engage in profiling and are also more likely to be perceived to be engaging in racial profiling in the exercise of their discretion. Racism began to be studied by scientists in the 19th century. At the time the ideology explained some political and economic conflicts in parts of the world, and legitimized the dominant role of British capitalism in the world economic system. While many of the existing definitions of racial profiling, primarily originating in the United States, focus on law enforcement, the Ontario Human Rights Commission’s Terms of Reference define racial profiling more broadly to include any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security or public protection that relies on stereotypes about race, colour, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, or place of origin rather than on reasonable suspicion, to single out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment. is dispute regarding what defines racial profiling. While it may be somewhat natural for humans to engage in stereotyping, it is nevertheless wrong. And, organizations need to acknowledge that just as each of us can stereotype, so too can their members, even if there is no institutional policy that allows the use of, encourages or even tolerates profiling. Such an asymmetry has emerged as a consequence that has affected how the legal rights in regards to the ways the police powers are treated when applying the power of search, investig… For the purposes of its inquiry, the Commission’s definition for "racial profiling" is any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security or public protection, that relies on stereotypes about race, colour, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, or place of origin, or a combination of these, rather than on a reasonable suspicion, to single out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment. In “ Singled Out ”, the Star’s analysis of arrest data from the Toronto Police Services revealed that Black Canadians were highly over-represented in certain offence categories, including drug possession and trafficking. Without a doubt, 9/11 generated a hitherto unmarked level of interest in racial profiling on the part of legislators, the media, and scholars.' First and foremost, it is the Commission’s view that racial profiling is primarily a mindset. Profiling definition is - the act or process of extrapolating information about a person based on known traits or tendencies; specifically : the act of suspecting or targeting a person on the basis of observed characteristics or behavior. What if racial profiling is not only morally wrong but also ineffective? However the ones that do it manage to give the entire organization a negative image.” (R.G. It is a form of stereotyping and discrimination based on race. While profiling can be intentional, it can also be inadvertent. [2] Public Service Commission of Canada, “Stereotyping” Monograph Issue 3 (October 1995), online: Public Service Commission of Canada . Let us join the voices of compassion and oppose the mean-spirited actions that aim to legalize racial profiling and scapegoat immigrants. This is what leads to profiling. A number of people who described themselves as Caucasian or White also participated in the inquiry and recounted witnessing incidents of profiling or experiencing profiling as a result of their relationship with a person from one of these other communities. It has long been recognized that the Canadian justice system is fraught with racism that disproportionately impacts Black people and communities across the country, resulting in racial profiling, harsher sentencing, mistreatment in prison, denial of services, and other injustices which can be compounded for people with intersecting identities (e.g. Bargh & T.L. The jurisprudential term “articulable cause” in Canada equates to lack of “reasonable grounds” in the U.S., which is regarded as de jure evidence concerning “racial profiling” even when specific evidence on racial biasness is missing. While xenophobia —or fear of those unlike ourselves —has long been a part of human cultures, the concept of race first appeared in the English language around the 17th century. a landlord asks a Chinese student to move out because she believes that the tenant will expose her to SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) even though the tenant has not been to any hospitals, facilities or countries associated with a high risk of SARS. However, 9/11 changed both the tenor and the nature of the debate. Profiling can occur in many contexts involving safety, security and public protection issues. a landlord asks a Chinese student to move out because she believes that the tenant will expose her to SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) even though the tenant has not been to any hospitals, facilities or countries associated with a high risk of SARS. Racial profiling is a form of discrimination. We do this because it allows us to organize and simplify complex situations and give us greater confidence in our ability to understand, predict and potentially control situations. At its heart, profiling is about stereotyping people based on preconceived ideas about a person’s character. Marjorie Cohn is a professor of law at Thomas Jefferson School of Law and past president of the National Lawyers Guild. (3d) 161 at 165: “The attitude underlying racial profiling is one that may be consciously or unconsciously held. Racial profiling refers to the inappropriate targeting of racial and ethnic groups by police officers and other law enforcement officials. This was recently acknowledged by one of Ontario’s top law enforcement officials at the 98th annual conference of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police.[5]. This is what leads to profiling. The primary institution that promotes and enforces racial profiling in society is the police. Racial or ethnic profiling is the act of suspecting or targeting a person on the basis of assumed characteristics or behavior of a racial or ethnic group, rather than on individual suspicion. Racial profiling is identified by Adele Cassola in her article as unjust whereas Denyse Coles argues that racial profiling is necessary and is not considered racism. At its heart, profiling is about stereotyping people based on preconceived ideas about a person’s character. Racial profiling occurs when an individual is subjected to differential treatment or greater scrutiny because of negative stereotypes related to their race or other grounds such as religious beliefs, colour, ancestry or place of origin or a combination of these. That is, the police officer need not be an overt racist. [The Association’s Policing and Aboriginal Peoples Committee] analyzed statistical, investigative and anecdotal information from across the country and we had no choice but to come to this regrettable conclusion. Criminal profiling, generally, as practiced by police, is the reliance on a group of characteristics they believe to be associated with crime. Prejudice is in all of us and if you are in a position of power you can wield it.” (N.S. According to the Ontario Human Rights Commission “Racial profiling is based on stereotypical assumptions because of one’s race, colour, ethnicity, etc.” whereas criminal profiling “relies on actual behaviour or on information about suspected activity by someone who meets the description of a specific individual” (Facts Sheet, para 2). Racial Profiling can be described as an individual being suspected of a crime solely on the grounds of their race or ethnicity. Chartrand, “The Unbearable Automaticity of Being” (July 1999) 54 American Psychologist 462-479. The African Canadian Legal Clinic, based in Toronto, has adopted the following definition: “Racial profiling is criminal profiling based on race. Chartrand, “The Unbearable Automaticity of Being” (July 1999) 54 American Psychologist 462-479. Typically but not always, profiling is carried out by persons in positions of authority, and can occur in many contexts involving safety, security and public protection issues. Stereotyping can be described as a process by which people use social categories (e.g. a law enforcement official assumes someone is more likely to have committed a crime because he is African Canadian; school personnel treat a Latino child’s behaviour as an infraction of its zero tolerance policy while the same action by another child might be seen as normal “kids’ play”; a private security guard follows a shopper because she believes the shopper is more likely to steal from the store; an employer wants a stricter security clearance for a Muslim employee after September 11. a bar refuses to serve Aboriginal patrons because of an assumption that they will get drunk and rowdy; a criminal justice system official refuses bail to a Latin American person because of a belief that people from her country are violent; and. The Commission selected a broad definition of racial profiling for several reasons. Racial profiling can be defined as an assumption that a person should be regarded as a potential criminal based on their racial background. Racial profiling, however, is not limited only to an individual's ethnicity or race, but can also be based on the individual's religion, or national origin. Bargh & T.L. Racial profiling is identified by Adele Cassola in her article as unjust whereas Denyse Coles argues that racial profiling is necessary and is not considered racism. The article quotes Bill Currie, Deputy Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police as having said: We do not provide equitable service to marginalized people. [3] J.A. racial profiling meaning: 1. the practice by the police of thinking that people of a particular race or colour will behave in…. The ambiguity of the phrase “racial profiling” has found itself favoured in the Canadian Courts. … ), It is also important to note that concerns with profiling relate directly to the concepts of discretion and power. 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