This is an epic Seal vs. Shark Battle in The Pacific Ocean off of Northern California on April 18, 2015. This is reduced in bright light, as the retracted pupil reduces the lens and cornea's ability to bend light. [43] Pinnipeds tend to be slower swimmers than cetaceans, typically cruising at 5–15 kn (9–28 km/h; 6–17 mph) compared to around 20 kn (37 km/h; 23 mph) for several species of dolphin. 'Breeding and Maternal Behavior of the Steller’s Sea Lion (, Odell, D. K. "The Fight to Mate: Breeding strategy of California sea lions" in 172–173 of MacDonald (2001), Campagna, C. "Aggressive behavior, intraspecific", pp. [114][115] Males defend their territorial boundaries with threatening vocalizations and postures, but physical fights are usually avoided. Otariids rely on the movements of their heads and necks more than their hind-flippers during terrestrial locomotion. Even some fully furred species (particularly sea lions) are less haired than most land mammals. This and its lack of orbital roof allow it to protrude its eyes and see in both frontal and dorsal directions. The leopard seal is known to prey on numerous other species, especially the crabeater seal. [134], Male pinnipeds generally play little role in raising the young. If the leopard seal lived alongside sharks I have no doubt it would be preyed on from time to time, if the larger elephant seals can be preyed on by sharks, I have no doubt leopard seals can too. [103] Arctic seals use more breathing holes per individual, appear more restless when hauled out, and rarely defecate on the ice. [154] Seals are also of great importance in the culture of the Inuit. They recommend that the genus Arctocephalus be limited to Arctocephalus pusillus, and they resurrected the name Arctophoca for several species and subspecies formerly placed in Arctocephalus. [90] Walruses do not often dive very deep, as they feed in shallow water. Deep-diving species such as elephant seals have blood volumes that represent up to 20% of their body weight. Southern Elephant Seal - Mirounga leonina The Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina) is one of the two extant species of elephant seal. Pinnipeds (pronounced /ˈpɪnɪˌpɛdz/), commonly known as seals,[a] are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals. In some phocid species, like the harbor seal, Weddell seal and bearded seal, the males have underwater territories called "maritories" near female haul-out areas. When threatened by other adults or when pups try to suckle, females make a harsh, pulsed call. In addition, the walrus lacks external ear flaps. Vocals are produced both in air and underwater. The skins of fur seals and phocids are made into coats, and the tusks of walruses continue to be used for carvings or as ornaments. Veins containing cool blood from the body extremities surround arteries, which contain warm blood received from the core of the body. The well-developed dilator muscle gives the animals a great range in pupil dilation. [31] The walrus has unique upper canines that are elongated into tusks. [107] Species that breed on land are usually polygynous, as females gather in large aggregations and males are able to mate with them as well as defend them from rivals. In addition, walruses feed solitarily but are often near other walruses in small or large groups that may surface and dive in unison. Nevertheless, when disturbed by intruders harbor seals and Baikal seals may slap their fore-flippers against their bodies as warnings. Female leopard seals, the larger of the two sexes, can grow up to 590 kg (1,300 pounds) and 3.8m meters (10 feet) long. Some species also rest on man-made structures, like piers, jetties, buoys and oil platforms. These primitive walruses had much shorter canines and lived on a fish diet rather than a specialized mollusk diet like the modern walrus. [3], The German naturalist Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger was the first to recognize the pinnipeds as a distinct taxonomic unit; in 1811 he gave the name Pinnipedia to both a family and an order. Proponents of seal hunts insist that the animals are killed humanely and the white-coated pups are not taken, while opponents argue that it is irresponsible to kill harp seals as they are already threatened by declining habitat. In otariid species like the South American and Australian sea lions, non-territorial subadults form "gangs" and cause chaos within the breeding rookeries to increase their chances of mating with females. Prey that is too large or awkward is taken to the surface to be torn apart. The seals were easy targets for organized sealers, fishermen, turtle hunters and buccaneers because they evolved with little pressure from terrestrial predators and were thus "genetically tame". [37], Pinnipeds can move around on land, though not as well as terrestrial animals. [101], The mating system of pinnipeds varies from extreme polygyny to serial monogamy. [175] There has been some debate over the cause of the decline of Steller sea lions in Alaska since the 1970s. Terrestrial locomotion is easier for phocids on ice, as they can sled along. These animals lack external ear flaps and are incapable of turning their hind-flippers forward, which makes them more cumbersome on land. Its only natural predator is the killer whale. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals allows limited hunting of crabeater seals, leopard seals and Weddell seals. In the mid-nineteenth century, the species was thought to have gone extinct until a small colony was found near the Yucatán Peninsula in 1886. By comparison, terrestrial locomotion by phocids is more cumbersome. Though not as fast in the water as dolphins, seals are more flexible and agile. [139] Otariid females and their young use mother-pup attraction calls to help them reunite when the mother returns from foraging at sea. An orca near by spots the pinniped and dashes towards it. [148] Female elephant seals make an unpulsed attraction call when responding to their young. [48][49] This is because it feeds on immobile bottom dwelling mollusks and hence does not need acute vision. The Elephant seal goes back on the ice. Elephant seals exhibit sexual dimorphism - a systematic difference in form between individuals of opposite sex of the same species. 260–68 in Perrin, Würsig and, Mann, J. The ancestor of the Baikal seal migrated into Lake Baikal from the Arctic (via the Siberian ice sheet) and became isolated there. The fight takes place in the Antarctic seas. The deep split between the lineages of Erignathus and Cystophora 17 Mya suggests that the phocines migrated eastward and northward from the North Atlantic. Zoologist Georges Cuvier noted during the 19th century that wild seals show considerable fondness for humans and stated that they are second only to some monkeys among wild animals in their easily tamability. To keep their blood pressure stable, phocids have an elastic aorta that dissipates some of the energy of each heartbeat. [176], Some species have become so numerous that they conflict with local people. 316–321 in Perrin, Würsig and, Weller, D. W. "Predation on marine mammals", pp. Although pinnipeds are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Species commonly entangled include California sea lions, Hawaiian monk seals, northern fur seals and brown fur seals. [117] Male vocals are usually of lower frequencies than those of the females. This "rhythmic entrainment" was previously seen only in humans, parrots and other birds possessing vocal mimicry. The leopard seal also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal). She is depicted as a mermaid, occasionally with a seal's lower body. The calls appear to contain prefixes and suffixes that serve to emphasize a message. [40] Seals have a layer of subcutaneous fat known as blubber that is particularly thick in phocids and walruses. [81] When they are asleep on land, both sides of their brain go into sleep mode.[82]. [156] One of the earliest Ancient Greek coins depicts the head of a seal, and the animals were mentioned by Homer and Aristotle. If a male leaves the beach to feed, he will likely lose mating opportunities and his dominance. [167] The Government of Canada permits the hunting of harp seals. Then the Leopard seal bites the Elephant seal on the side, but the Elephant seal's blubber protected it. Few islands are favorable for breeding, and those that are tend to be crowded. [179] In 2007, MMPA was amended to permit the lethal removal of sea lions from salmon runs at Bonneville Dam. They state that the exhibits could not be large enough to house animals that have evolved to be migratory, and a pool could never replace the size and biodiversity of the ocean. [126] Female Steller sea lions are known to solicit mating with their territorial males. [177][178] Sea lions also conflict with fisherman since both depend on the same fish stocks. [128] Pups of most species are born precocial. [160] Some organizations, such as the Humane Society of the United States and World Animal Protection, object to keeping pinnipeds and other marine mammals in captivity. [54] Seals release large amounts of mucus to protect their eyes. [130] Mother pinnipeds have different strategies for maternal care and lactation. [88] Traveling seals may use various features of their environment to reach their destination including geomagnetic fields, water and wind currents, the position of the sun and moon and the taste and temperature of the water. Photo taken at Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (California), February 26, 2004. The pure white fur of harp seal pups conceals them in their Arctic environment. To counteract overheating, many species cool off by flipping sand onto their backs, adding a layer of cool, damp sand that enhances heat loss. Ringed seals build dens underneath fast ice for protection. Odobenids further diversified in the middle and late Miocene. [16] The fossil monachine Monotherium and phocine Leptophoca were found in southeastern North America. [33][110], Adult male pinnipeds have several strategies to ensure reproductive success. This term typically excludes the walrus in everyday English. [101] Pinnipeds are also targeted by terrestrial and pagophilic predators. Pinnipeds may move further inland and rest in sand dunes or vegetation, and may even climb cliffs. [127], Unlike terrestrial mammals, pinniped milk has little to no lactose. Some anthropologists argue that the term "subsistence" should also apply to these cash-based exchanges as long as they take place within local production and consumption. [99] Some species may swallow stones or pebbles for reasons not understood. Seals and sea lions are often portrayed as innocent puppy dogs of the sea. Previous Thread; Next Thread; Please make a selection first; new « Prev; 1; 2; Next » Canid Cetus Aves Global Moderator. [83] Pinnipeds may hunt solitarily or cooperatively. They are entirely absent from Indomalayan waters. 500 to 32,000 Hz in the northern fur seal, compared to 20 to 20,000 Hz in humans), their airborne hearing sensitivity is weaker overall. These animals rely on their well-developed fore-flippers to propel themselves through the water. However, the New Zealand sea lion has been recorded diving to a maximum of 460 m (1,510 ft) and a duration of 12 minutes. The elephant seal sees the orca and swims back onto the beach but then gets quickly pulled into the water. [117] The maritories of Weddell seal males can overlap with female breathing holes in the ice. They also harass and attempt to mate with females that head out to the water. Two Pinnipeds are ready for an Antarctic Showdown, as the Elephant seal and Leopard seal go head to head. [24] Phocids are known to have existed for at least 15 million years,[13] and molecular evidence supports a divergence of the Monachinae and Phocinae lineages 22 Mya. Otariids and walruses have hind limbs that can be pulled under the body and used as legs on land. [50], On land, pinnipeds are near-sighted in dim light. Most species have neither a cecum nor a clear demarcation between the small and large intestines; the large intestine is comparatively short and only slightly wider than the small intestine. [116] Individuals also return to the same territorial site each breeding season. They have streamlined bodies and four limbs that are modified into flippers. [105] Walruses, despite being specialized for feeding on bottom-dwelling invertebrates, occasionally prey on Arctic seals. Visual displays also occur: Weddell seals will make an S-shaped posture when patrolling under the ice, and Ross seals will display the stripes on their chests and teeth when approached. The leopard seal, a prolific predator of penguins, is known to violently swing its prey back and forth until it is dead. The northern fur seal pants to help stay cool, while monk seals often dig holes in the sand to expose cooler layers to rest in. [13], Phocids are known as true or "earless" seals. These two amazing creatures are larger than grizzly bears and are some of the top marine predators. So just call me MP. This helps them see in low-light conditions. The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal). The elephant seal first tries to bite the orca’s face and succeeds, making the killer whale let go. 861–66 in Perrin, Würsig and, Berta, A. [165], Humans have hunted seals since the Stone Age. [16], In a 2012 review of pinniped taxonomy, Berta and Morgan Churchill suggested that, based on morphological and genetic criteria, there are 33 extant species and 29 subspecies of pinnipeds, although five of the latter lack sufficient support to be conclusively considered subspecies. [149] Pups may also vocalize when playing, in distress or when prodding their mothers to allow them to suckle. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Then, They both wash themselves on the ice. [174] Species that live in polar habitats are vulnerable to the effects of recent and ongoing climate change, particularly declines in sea ice. [127] For most species, birthing takes place in the spring and summer months. [11], Otariids are also known as eared seals due to the presence of pinnae. [16], Odobenidae consists of only one living member: the modern walrus. Dominant male elephant seals advertise their status and threaten rivals with "clap-threats" and loud drum-like calls[140] that may be modified by the proboscis. Wildlife managers have used various methods to control the animals, and some city officials have redesigned docks so they can better withstand use by sea lions. [38], Pinnipeds have a simple stomach that is similar in structure to terrestrial carnivores. 1005–1011 in Perrin, Würsig and, Lavigne, D. M. "Harp seal", pp. Small intestine lengths range from 8 times (California sea lion) to 25 times (elephant seal) the body length. [47] By swinging their heads and necks, otariids create momentum while they are moving. In between nursing bouts, the females leave their young onshore to forage at sea. When two bull elephant seals square off, things can get bloody. Large sharks are another major predator of pinnipeds—usually the great white shark but also the tiger shark and mako shark. [136] Male California sea lions have been observed to help shield swimming pups from predators. [79] The same adaptations that conserve heat while in water tend to inhibit heat loss when out of water. The Baikal seal is the only freshwater species, though some ringed seals live in freshwater lakes in Russia close to the Baltic sea. [66] The vibrissae of some otariids grow quite long—those of the Antarctic fur seal can reach 41 cm (16 in). Females are generally slightly larger than the males on average. Seals are more agile and flexible,[37] and some otariids, such as the California sea lion, are capable of bending their necks backwards far enough to reach their hind-flippers, allowing them to make dorsal turns. Detecting vibrations is useful when the animals are foraging and may add to or even replace vision, particularly in darkness. Posts: 1,090 Leopard Seal vs American Crocodile Jan 5, 2012 17:09:53 GMT -5 . They kill their prey with their long tusks and eat their blubber and skin. [33][34] Despite a correlation between size dimorphism and the degree of polygyny, some evidence suggests that size differences between the sexes originated due to ecological differences and prior to the development of polygyny. [133] Young pinnipeds typically learn to swim on their own and some species can even swim at birth. They cannot roll back under the seal's body; so when a seal gets on land, it can only wriggle on its belly to move around. [120] Grey seal males usually claim a location among a cluster of females whose members may change over time,[121] while males of some walrus populations try to monopolize access to female herds. Phocids such as elephant seals, grey seals and hooded seals remain on land or ice and fast during their relatively short lactation period–four days for the hooded seal and five weeks for elephant seals. Male pinnipeds typically mate with more than one female (polygyny), although the degree of polygyny varies with the species. 830–835 in Perrin, Würsig and, Reeves, R. "Hunting of marine mammals", pp. Pinnipeds also have very muscular and vascularized irises. [24] Their evolutionary link to terrestrial mammals was unknown until the 2007 discovery of Puijila in early Miocene deposits in Nunavut, Canada. In the 1980s and 1990s, South African politicians and fisherman demanded that the fur seals be culled, believing that the animals competed with commercial fisheries. [123] Alternative mating strategies also exist in young male grey seals, which do have some success. Quote. [150] They demonstrate the ability to understand simple syntax and commands when taught an artificial sign language, though they only rarely used the signs semantically or logically. [16] The lobodontine lineage emerged around 9 mya and colonized the southern ocean in response to glaciation. [113] Elephant seal males establish dominance hierarchies with the highest ranking males—the alpha males—maintaining harems of as many as 30–100 females. The Elephant seal then throws the Leopard seal. [127] Lactation in otariids may last 6–11 months; in the Galápagos fur seal it can last as long as 3 years. Leopard seals live in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters of the Southern Hemisphere. 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