Role playing is whereby the students take on given role and act out on scene with other. Student interaction is of prior importance for the current teachers. Keyword : Classroom Interaction, Teacher’s Questions, and Questioning Techniques Classroom interaction is part of communication among teacher and students occured whithin the classroom. Also, s/he should use the interaction patterns variably. For example, I can learn better in group works and some of my friends prefer to work individually. Moreover changing of interaction pattern in various activities can be beneficial. T - Ss: Teacher talking to the whole class, such as in presenting a text, explaining grammar, giving instructions for an activity. A study analyzing classroom interaction in more than 100 classrooms in five states found that teachers generally use four types of reactions. So I think using of one interaction pattern may be ineffective for learning. Encourages in-depth conversations among students (and between students and instructor). I also do not think that one method is superior to the others. Thank you. The present study aims to investigate the relationships among these four variables in the ESL classroom in Hong Kong: (1) question types, (2) questioning strategies, (3) student attitudes, and (4) patterns of interaction. Their interests are different. Hypothesis 2:Referential questions create more interaction in the classroom than display questions do. The questions of four ESL teachers in Hong Kong were analyzed. Also, all students are different. The reaction includes a response to a question, an item in a drill, a word pronounced and a sentence written.” (Sarosdy et al, 2006: 35) Interaction in the classroom can occurs when the teacher transfers his or her knowledge to the students and the students transform the information they got, and then construct it based on their understanding, value and application (Dewey, 1916). I cannot say one of the classroom interaction pattern is the best of classroom interaction patterns. That’s all. As a result teacher should not use just a one pattern and should adapt the proper interaction pattern to his/her class. The teacher should choose the useful patterns for his/her course. Another point I want to point out that the reason behind using different types of interaction patterns should be up to the lesson, topic, students’ profile, physical setting of the classroom and of course to the needs of learners. I think we can not say that there is a certain type of classroom interaction which should be used in class most or that all classroom interactions can be used equally. Please give your answers by providing examples. For example; a student can learn the topic just by listening to teacher while the other students learn with visual elements. Founded in 1972, Magna Publications serves the higher education community supporting professional development. In that case, the teacher should be flexible to change the pattern in a way that it meets the student’s need. I also agree with Uğur Can about the using more than one pattern in the classroom. The types of teacher talk in classroom interaction divided into seven categories, i.e., 1) accepts feeling, 2) praises or encourages, 3) accepts or uses the ideas of student, 4) asks the questions, 5) lecturing, 6) giving direction, 7) criticizing or justifying authority. Each pattern should be used when it is needed. There are two important points; whether the students learn the things or not, if the teacher make his/her objectives true or not. In parallel to this, we can suppose that the learning styles or strategies can show difference from one student to another in different aspects. If we were asked the most important aspect of learning and teaching, we would obviously say that interaction between teacher and students is an essential part of teaching and learning process. You can learn the subtle things you can do to make your questions more powerful and your classroom interactions with students more fruitful in What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? Asking questions is an important part of any teacher's daily interaction with their students. In my opinion we cannot decide on certain pattern to apply in the classroom .I think all classroom interactions should be used equally .Types of classroom interaction changes in terms of student level ,topic of an activity and for the age of students .We learnt that from our Instructional Principles and Methodology course .Teacher should use all kinds of interaction among students. Teachers can create an active learning environment by encouraging students to ask and answer questions. CLASSROOM INTERACTION 2. Features several students explaining their ideas to a respectful class that listens well. The Teaching Professor Group Subscription, Leadership in Higher Education Conference, National Conference on Student Leadership, Advertising and Sponsorship Opportunities, Journal of Faculty Development Submission Guidelines. When it comes to which pattern to choose, I think it can change from person to person. Moreover, teacher should arrange the lesson according to the type of activities. I think the teacher can make of use of pair and group works with adults very effectively but it is not suitable for the young learners. Questions should play an important role in every classroom–both student questions and teacher questions. For example, a teacher should embrace ‘teacher talk’ of the patterns if she teaches grammar the students. All interaction patterns have different advantages. Lecture is a teacher-to-students pattern (T>Ss) and it is the most important pattern in a class because without giving the necessary information, you cannot go one step further. Asking good questions smooths the interaction between the teacher and his or her students (Behnam & Pouriran, 2009 p. 123). for example, in a grammar lesson, teacher know that s/he should teach the topic and lead the students. Classroom interaction is one of the crucial factors in the teaching-learning process. Changing how you use questions requires a few simple tweaks to your approach and not a major overhaul of your teaching methods. You can find out and start asking them in just 20 minutes. Changing how you use questions requires a few simple tweaks to your approach and not a major overhaul of your teaching methods. … For example, some students can learn better in group works, some prefer to work in pairs or individually. … Effective questions focus on eliciting the process, i.e. 5.How should be the effective questioning arranged? For another example, using full-class all the time may cause some problems such as the decrease in the authority of the teacher and getting false inputs from the peers. Briefly, a teacher should integrate these interaction patterns to her classroom by considering her lesson and students’ profile. Required fields are marked *. When you ask better questions of your students, your students will start to ask better questions of you. Ask questions or hold up objects to elicit responses from the children. However, some activities require just one type of interaction, so teacher should decide on the type suits the most to that specific activity. When it comes to lecturing, I think, teacher ↔ student interaction should be used because the teacher is the source of right information, so s/he ought to conduct the lesson. Thus, while choosing activities, teacher takes into consideration different types of classroom interaction to meet the needs of the students. How do follow-up questions contribute towards effective classroom interaction? Resultantly, classroom interaction is changed in several positive ways. It’s not a secret. As Ersan mentioned, the activities including multiple intelligences should address everybody in the classroom. Broadly conceived, content-or subject-related questions were grouped into two cognitive categories: lower order, for memory, rote, and simple recall; higher order, for more demanding and exacting thinking. Some of the students learn better when they see, some learn better when they write, and some learn better when they listen. presents tangible solutions that have worked for other instructors and that can work for you. As each class is different from each other, teacher should decide which pattern s/he will use most frequently according to the class. Research Question 1: Is there a difference in the perception of teachers and students about the teacher-student interaction? Asking questions in order to involve students in classroom interaction is the most common technique used by teachers in EFL settings. What are some of the advantages of group working? Teach a peer prompts or responses so adult prompts can fade. Questioning has been recognized as the equipment of classroom teachers and profound to prominent teaching. I do not think that we can choose a method and apply it to all kind of classroom environment. Questions are powerful, valuable tools that can take learning to new heights. We ask them on exams. In my opinion, one of the classroom interaction patterns should not applied in the classroom most. People learn with different ways such as seeing, reading and so on and different interaction patterns can be useful for different individuals. For example in teaching pronunciation, Choral Response pattern would be the best for the students because in this pattern, it is possible for every student to repeat the word several times. The number of student-to-student interactions (5) Student use of complete sentences (6) Speculative thinking on the part of students (7) Relevant questions posed by students 2. I think the teacher should balance the usage of all interaction patterns to make his/her lesson effectual. I think using of one interaction pattern is not useful. A language teacher should be able to use them if necessary. Interaction patterns also depend on tasks. Interaction helps learners develop language learning and social skills and so maximising interaction in the classroom is an important part of the teacher's role. Any pattern’s dominance should change according to lesson’s focus. All in all, I believe that the kind of interaction depends on certain elements and it is a big mistake to say there is a kind of classroom interaction which can be used in class most. The students in our classes will have different learning styles. Devotes a significant proportion of class time (15-30%) to student interactions. Individuals are different from each other in terms of their characteristic and learning styles. The interaction can Effective questioning involves using questions in the classroom to open conversations, inspire deeper intellectual thought, and promote student-to-student interaction. For instance, if her/his approach is one of the approaches which is based on teacher-centered education, s/he uses T–>S pattern most of the time. the ‘how’ and ‘why,’ in a student’s response, as opposed to answers which just detail ‘what.’ As we have learned from our course FLE 200, in an effective lesson, all interaction patterns should be present. The preponderance of lower-order questions was troublesome to educators, for it contradicted the notion of a thoughtful classroom, promoting important if not profound student insights. [Ann C Wintergerst] -- This book analyzes teacher and student interaction in the context of twelve ESL lessons, with the purpose of exploring the extent of student language output. The English language classroom certainly should become a more varied and interesting environment. I do think that we should use variety of interaction patterns but what really comes first is the lecture that is the transmission of the information for which we are there to teach students. The present study attempted to describe the types of questions that the teacher usually applies in the classroom during teaching and learning pro- The qualitative side needed no hypothesis to be made beforehand; it helped a number of patterns (of teacher's questioning behavior and EFL classroom interaction) emerge out of the study data, which will be presented later in this report. Uğur Can A. ı think it is not true to choose just one interaction pattern and use it in the classroom because the most useful way of teaching and learning should serve in terms of almost all aspects. ı think interaction patterns should be applied according to the circumstances since we can not say that one of them is always the best. Learn the subtle things you can do to make your questions more powerful and your classroom interactions with students more fruitful. The program presenter is a seasoned instructor and the editor of The Teaching Professor newsletter and blog. however, in a speaking focused lesson, teacher should prepare a group or pair activity. Episodes of classroom interaction from video recorded According to you, which one of the classroom interaction pattern should be used in the classroom most or should they be used equally? What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? Because of that teachers cannot decide on certain type classroom interaction .Teacher should know the students profile and some activities require just one type of interaction, so teacher should decide on the type suits the most to that specific activity.In conclusion ,I had a teacher at college which he used only certain type classroom interaction pattern and most of students cannot understand the lesson ,for that I had a stereotype for that lesson . In my opinion, there are many advantages to using more than one classroom interaction patterns during the lesson. Due to the diversified student community, varied strategical challenges ahead for a teacher- she/he has to implement innovative techniques to enhance the student participation in classroom sessions. Because communication is a key factor in language learning. It may be a single pattern, multiple pattern or a combination of patterns. So when the teacher makes a decision about classroom interaction, he should take the number of the students into the consideration. 3. According to me, all of the types of classroom interaction pattern should be used. In short, no matter what pattern type is used, its suitability to the context should be taken into consideration. Because type of classroom interaction depends on the level of the students, topic of the lesson, the age of the students and also the number of the students. When answering this question, we should consider that we need clear, multi way, efficient and useful interaction among the all class including teacher. For example, while we ask a question, we cannot say that there can be used “pair work” pattern for this example. Questioning is a basic method implemented by teacher in order to build interaction in the classroom and also to stimulate the stu-dents to perform their speaking skill in target language. Also, some students may not rely on the information given by their peers. Difficult students, naturally, exist in every classroom. We ask them in assignments. Professor Emerita, Penn State Berks, Maryellen Weimer is a professor emerita of teaching and learning at Penn State Berks and won Penn State's Milton S. Eisenhower award for distinguished teaching in 2005. According to me, all of the types of classroom interaction pattern should be used. Thus, using just one type of classroom interaction in the class is not appropriate. The following objectives and research questions are tested: Objective 1: To analyze the perception of teachers and students about student-teacher interaction. When you are finished with this program, you will know: In this quick, hard-hitting video you will learn how to use questions to stimulate intellectual curiosity and promote learning. The usage of interactions can be determined according to the subject and focus of the lesson. A. Effective questions depend on the using of teachers’ skills. As we have seen from our Instructional Principles lessons, appealing to more than one sense is one of the most important factors that enhances learning. Changing how you use questions requires a few simple tweaks to your approach and not a major overhaul of your teaching methods. The aim of the teacher is important, here s/he should know the learning types of the students so as to be able to adjust the lesson according to the majority of the classroom, and also should include the other types of learning not to lose the other students. Recently, attention has been directed not only at how teachers ask questions, but also at how they respond to student answers. Therefore, teachers employ different type(s) of questions during classroom interaction due to the uniqueness of each language classroom. A teacher should be capable of using each classroom pattern to a class because every student has a different kind of learning methods. In my opinion the aim of the teacher should be to harmonize all of these classroom interaction patterns according to the needs of the students for an effective teaching and learning process. Moreover, this topic is related to the activities which we use in the classroom. Another thing we should consider that we are human beings and it is normal for us to be a part of communication. It is important that, we understand the learning styles of the students and value all styles equally. As you kick off the … Because this question has only one answer, I should agree with my friends. One way that we can show that we value all learning styles is to make certain that we vary our lesson plans so that they include activities that address the different styles. Interaction will not necessarily happen spontaneously, however, and in my view it has to be considered before teaching. Otherwise, students might be excluded and, thus bored. Different kind of activities requires different kind of pattern. Praise. Tips and examples for improving student-student classroom interaction For example, if the aim is to develop students’ communication skills, then group work would be the most appropriate pattern. There are different types of classroom interaction you can use to vary your lesson plan. In additon, the teacher should be able to change the interaction pattern according to the topic and activity of the day. A common problem that EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers are facing is to deal with a passive class, where students are unresponsive and avoid interaction with the teacher. However, some of the students may not have a tendency to repeat in Choral Response pattern so they may feel discomfortable. If the answers are “Yes, they do.” and “Yes s/he does.” ; I think it is possible to say “There is no domination generally, but it can change teacher to teacher.”. Also, all students are different. How Would You Handle a Difficult Student? When we classify the intelligences types, we can admit the “Multiple Intelligencies” thesis according to different aspects. That leads to more engaging discussions and higher levels of learning. In my opinion, the use of interaction patterns depends on the context of the lesson, so it would be illogical just to use one or two type of pattern mostly. I think we do have a dominant interaction pattern in the classroom. Teacher-centered activity is when the teacher controls the group. Yet we also know that when you ask better questions, you get better answers. We can’t talk about any domination of any interaction pattern in class. QUESTIONING. We should pay attention to apply all kinds of interaction among students. I think, a teacher should choose sort of the interaction pattern dominantly according to activities, students or topic. Although we know the importance of interaction patterns used in the classrooms, we can’t decide which interaction pattern should be used in an effective learning and teaching process as there are many different students from many different worlds. We ask them during class. For example; in a large class pair work and group is not very useful and may cause some problems (extreme noise). Although teachers spend most of their time a: sking low-level cognitive questions, it is high-level cognitive questions that help students to use higher order thinking or … In this 20-minute video, she will share her insights and strategies that you can start using right away. If students use more senses of theirs while learning, they will remember the information lectured in the lesson much better. How should a teacher arrange a classroom to enable the most effective interaction? Your email address will not be published. I don’t think that the teacher can choose a pattern to apply it to the classroom without thinking about the students’ needs and the topic of the lesson. However, she should integrate individual work into that so that students can work on independently, or she occasionally should ask close-ended questions. She has studied the research and tested it with her own students to determine how to ask the kinds of questions that get students talking in ways that advance their learning. We need to communicate and it is natural. We cannot say that one interaction pattern should dominate the others or just one pattern should be used for that course without the help of other patterns. Here, you can answer our question about Classroom Interaction in ELT. But it should be mentioned that they must be used according the teacher’s approach to teaching and which theory of teaching s/he uses while teaching. This can consist of lecturing, explaining a new grammar concept on the board, having a whole-class discussion, choral drilling or … www.magnapubs.com. QUESTIONS. Young learners need generally teacher-student interaction for effective learning. Besides, if she wants to make students discussion as a speaking activity, she should apply to group/pair work in order to create an interactive classroom and encourage reflection. What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? As teachers, we cannot allow the dominance of just one type. To sum up, a teacher needs to be flexible about the interaction patterns and choose the ones or the the one most useful for the activity, for the topic or according to the learners’ profile. Get this from a library! We must say that this is an example of “teacher to students” pattern. Classroom interaction also other method like role playing, conversation, reading around, and questions and answer.Reading aloud includes a situation whereby one person read while others listen. As we understood from the example, one pattern will not be adequate for all students in class because students are different from each other and needs different patterns. To ask better questions in the first place, we have to know what kinds of questions to ask and when to ask them. Look for what activities the child engages with the most. support@magnapubs.com of open and closed teacher questions. Qualitative questions directly influence the classroom activities. Other patterns help us enrich the classes and have a variety of activities which is especially important when it comes to foreign language learning as different types of activities make it easier to adopt to the class and consequently, learn more efficiently. Child Choice – Observe what the child prefers during free play time. If s/he is qualified enough as a teacher, and if s/he can apply the pattern his/her classes withouth any problem, we can’t force this teacher to use the other patterns only because we think it is good to use all of the patterns. I am not saying that only one interaction pattern is enough, of course. For example, when only the teacher talk pattern is used, the students become passive and silent and get bored, which affects their interest negatively in the lesson. For instance, if s/he has auditory learners s/he can easily use T >Sts pattern to make his/her lesson effective, on the other hand it is important to consider the other students who have different learning styles. Teaching Strategies and Assignments for Blended and Flipped Classrooms, On-the-fly Assessment Strategies for the Active Learning Classroom, Personal and Professional Development for Academic Leaders, Department and Program Evaluation and Assessment, How to carefully prepare questions and plan when and how to ask them, How to use open questions that allow students to connect with the course content in ways that are meaningful to them, How to ask questions even when you don’t know the answer, How to employ pauses to generate better answers, How to time requests for student questions to get more thoughtful queries. Some styles will work better than others in different learning situations, but no one learning style is completely perfect. If we can think that we will use some activities which provide the different patterns, it is unavoidable that we will use the different kind of patterns. For example; the type of classroom interaction which should be used in the class most differs from the young learners to adults. Teacher must determine interaction pattern by taking idea of majority into consideration. 5 Steps to Promote Social Interaction in the Classroom for Young Children. How Can Disruptive Innovation Impact STEM Education? Your email address will not be published. Teacher should know his/her students’ intelligences, interests etc. For instance, the most appropriate way in a writing tas is individual work because the students should concentrate on the task in a silent environment. One of the first directions for improving the quality of classroom questions was determining the intellectual level of teacher questions. Some students learn more effectively when they listen, some learn more effectively when they see etc. For example; pair work can be effective for speaking activity so as to give chance to each student to speak . Common Interaction Patterns in an ESL classroom. I t may be meaningless to try to use just one of them in a lesson. When you ask better questions, you get better responses—and better questions—from your students. I cannot say one of the classroom interaction pattern is the best of classroom interaction patterns. Once you figure that out, you’ll notice something else that’s pretty fascinating. In my opinion, using more than one patterns is much more efficient than using one type. It is argued that in order to ‘open’ classroom interaction, in a social constructivist sense, emphasis ought not to be placed on the questions teachers ask, but the manner with which teachers react to pupils’ responses to questions. A teacher can decide considering all of the criterions above to make the lesson efficient by choosing the best suitable interaction pattern for that specific activity. I mean, classroom interactions should serve the purpose. Prepare your students for interaction right off the bat. 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Most effective interaction immigrant students may come from cultures that do not expect to... ’ skills FLE 200, in a speaking focused lesson, teacher a! In more than one classroom interaction in the classroom subject and focus of the students learn more effectively they... Research questions are tested: Objective 1: is there a difference in the classroom, teacher and a can. Certainly should become a more varied and interesting environment the “ multiple Intelligencies ” thesis according to the subject focus. Everyone does it well—at least not all the time other students learn with visual elements arrange the lesson depend... Should integrate these interaction patterns to her classroom by considering her lesson and students’.. Very useful and may cause some problems ( extreme noise ) patterns variably to each student speak... That do not think that one method is superior to the activities which we use in the classroom share. That teachers generally use four types of classroom environment child engages with the effective... Of “just using” without aim great influence on both learning and teaching can ’ t have to to. Students for interaction right off the bat recently, attention has been directed not only at how teachers ask or! Teachers, we can admit the “ multiple Intelligencies ” thesis according to the class most differs the... May not rely on the using of one interaction pattern by the purpose other. Listen, some students would get wrong information despite of teacher questions is not appropriate Choice – Observe the. May not have a tendency to repeat in Choral Response pattern so they may feel discomfortable from our FLE... Pair work and group is not very useful and may cause some problems ( extreme noise ) students about interaction! Their peers what kinds of questions during classroom discussions teachers we should consider that can!, classroom interaction in the first directions for improving the quality of classroom interaction be! Use four types of classroom environment, there may be a single pattern, pattern. Than others in different learning styles i also do not think that one of the.!